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动词的语态重点难点解析讲解与练习
版块:教育培训   类型:普通   作者:clcfone   查看:35   回复:0   获赞:0   时间:2021-12-19 14:31:43

动词的语态重点难点解析讲解与练习
动词的语态有两种:主动语态(the active voice)和被动语态(the passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态示主语是动作的承受者。如: People speak English all over the world. (the active voice)
English is spoken all over the world. (the passive voice)
一 动词的被动语态构成一览表(以ask为例)
常用被动语态 构    成 常用被动语态 构    成
1 一般现在时 am/is/are asked 6 过去进行时 was/were being asked
2 一般过去时 was/were asked 7 现在完成时 have/has been asked
3 一般将来时 will/shall be asked 8 过去完成时 had been asked
4 过去将来时 should/would be asked 9 过去将来完成时 will/would have beenasked
5 现在进行时 am/is/are being asked 10 含有情态动词的 can/must/may… be asked

注意事项 被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加not,短语动词的被动语态不可漏掉其中介副词。固定结构be going to, used to, have to, had better变为被动语态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动语态。如:We are not allowed to smoke./ He is often made fun of by his classmates./ Newspaper used to be sent here at 10 a.m.

英语必修四
高考英语词汇必备3500
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据说类动词,如:It is said/believed/supposed/reported that…, It is generally considered that…, It is well known that…等,及It must be admitted/pointed out that…等结构常以被动形式出现。

以下主动形式常表被动意义:The bike needs/wants/requires repairing. /The film is worth seeing. /The door won’t shut/open. /The play won’t act. /The clothes washes well. /The book sells well. /The dish tastes delicious. /Water feels very cold.

以下词或短语没有被动态:happen, appear, become, last, cost, occur, lack, fit, mean, join, equal, fail, enter, have, contain, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, consist of, lose heart, keep up with等。

二 被动语态和系表结构的区别:
1. 被动语态表示动作,而系表结构表状态;
   The cup was broken by a boy. (被动语态)
   The cup is broken. (系表结构)
2. 前者可有多种时态,而后者只有一般现在时和过去时;
   My bike is being/will be/was repaired.
   He is/was interested in his work.
3. 被动语态可跟by短语,表动作的执行者;
   The dress was made by my mother.

实战演练
用所给动词的适当形式填空
1. As the years passed, many occasions---birthdays, awards, graduations _______________ (mark) with Dad’s flowers.
2. Customers are asked to make sure that they __________________(give) the right change before leaving the shop.
3. Great changes _________________ (take place) in the city, and a lot of factories ________________ (set up).
4. The police found that the house ____________________ (break into) and a lot of things ____________ (steal).
5. The discussion _______________ (come) alive when an interesting topic was brought in.
6. The headteacher says that all the preparations for the party __________________________ (complete) by Friday.
7. The wet weather will continue tomorrow when a cold front ________________ (expect) to arrive.
8. The careless driver is ______________ (blame) for the traffic accident that ____________ (happen) yesterday.
9. Flowers usually _______________ (sell) well on Valentine’s Day, so their flowers ______________ (sell) in no time that day.
10. I want to buy that kind of cloth because I _______________ (tell) the cloth _______________ (wash) well.
11. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) ___________________ (say) to have bought birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free.
12. ---Have you handed in your schoolwork yet?
---Yes, I have. I guess it ______________________ (grade) now.
13. If Newton lived today, he would be surprised by what ________________________ (discover) in science and technology.
14. The work needs _________________ (complete) by 6 p.m.
15. The number of deaths from heart disease __________________ (reduce) greatly if people are persuaded to eat more vegetables.

答案:1. were marked 2. have been given 3. have taken place; have been set up 4. had been broken into, stolen 5. came 6. will have been completed 7. is expected 8. to blame, happened 9. sell, was sold 10. have been told, washes 11.
is said 12. is being graded 13. has been discovered 14. completing/to be completed 15. will be reduced 

 
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